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New plants in the garden
When we plant a new plant in our garden, remember to prepare a hole at least twice the size of the pot in which it is contained, we work the soil well, mixing universal soil and manure; we bury the plant and then water it abundantly, remembering to provide at least a bucket of water, or we check that the soil is well wet, up to a depth of at least 20-30 cm. If our soil is very heavy and tends to stagnate water, we also add sand, in order to make it more permeable, in fact very few plants can tolerate conditions of still and stagnant water.
For the first few weeks after planting, let's remember to water the soil around the new specimen sporadically, always waiting for it to dry before intervening.
If we want the climate to help us, we are waiting for the best months to plant the new shrubs, or the milder and more rainy ones: March, April, September and October; spring and autumn will help us with frequent rains and not too high temperatures.
It may happen to plant a tree or a shrub even during the other months of the year; during the winter the plants will generally need less water; if instead we find ourselves in the summer we try to make sure that the roots remain slightly moist for a long time, regularly watering the new specimen, especially in the case of prolonged periods of drought.
Shrubs in the open ground
The specimens already present in the garden usually have fewer needs than "newcomers", especially those already in residence for many years: tall trees and shrubs tend to develop much in the first years of life, less in the following ones; water needs change depending on the "age" of the plants. Often large trees or shrubs have been settling for a few years in the rain, being able to make use of a well-extended root system, able to search for water even very deep.
As a general rule, let us remember to supply water to shrubs, fruit trees, perennials, annuals and turf, on a fairly regular basis in the months from March to October; let's reduce watering during the milder and rainy months and let's intensify them during the summer, especially in case of very dry weather.
Before watering, let's check the humidity in the soil, touching with your fingers, to a depth of 10-15 cm, when it is dry we can supply water.
During the winter months most of our plants are in vegetative rest, so their needs are somewhat reduced; the harsh climate, the few hours of insolation, the sporadic rains, allow us to completely avoid watering.
Some evergreen shrubs, especially flowering shrubs, such as azaleas or camellias, may need sporadic watering during the winter weeks with mild climates.
Plants in container
Garden plants grown in pots can develop their root system only in the volume of the container, therefore they suffer more quickly, compared to twins grown in the open ground, of the climatic conditions; a warm sunny afternoon in May can already completely drain the soil contained in a large vase. For this reason garden plants in containers should be watered more frequently than plants in the ground; when we supply water to these plants we wet the soil well in depth, until the water comes out of the drainage holes, preventing it from remaining in the possible saucer for a long time. Being able to develop in a restricted environment, the potted plants tend to be damaged more quickly even by the excesses of watering, therefore we always wait for the soil to be dry between one watering and another.
If the soil, kept dry for too long, dries completely, forming a dry mass, which detaches from a vessel, let's water it abundantly: possibly place it in a larger container that we will fill with water and let it soak for 20-30 minutes , until all the earthen bread has been moistened.
In the apartment
Most of the apartment plants need regular watering, avoiding water stagnations; every single plant has its own needs, but in general it is preferable to always wait for the soil to dry slightly between one watering and another, to allow the roots to oxygenate; in general it is advisable to avoid leaving stagnant water in the saucer, in contact with the roots of the plants. These small rules are valid throughout the year for houseplants, although it is advisable to thin out the watering slightly during the winter months, since the few hours of insolation cause less activity in the plants. In indecision it is preferable to wait, rather than over-watering.
Let us remember that each type of container lets the water evaporate in a different way: the plastic vases tend to hold it, and also the ceramic ones, while the earthenware vessels let it evaporate; It is therefore inadvisable to water all the plants at the same time, instead it is good to check the vase for each vase.
Usually the problem that most easily presents with many houseplants concerns environmental humidity, many of these plants can survive even in the event of prolonged drought, but they require a high percentage of air humidity.
During the cold months, domestic heating systems tend to excessively dry the air; during the summer months, the houseplants placed outdoors, are instead dried by the greater insolation and by the wind.
To overcome this drawback, many houseplants like to be vaporized every week, possibly with demineralized water.
If we have succulent plants at home we water them moderately during the winter months, more abundantly in spring and summer, leaving the soil dry for a few days between one watering and another.
How to water the plants: Deficiencies and excesses of water
Regular and adequate watering for every single plant, diversified according to the seasons, together with the other treatments that we offer to our garden, they give us healthy and robust plants, which well bear the attacks of parasites.
The excesses of watering cause poor oxygenation to the roots of the plants, with consequent development of rot: the leaves collapse, turn yellow and the plant quickly deteriorates; large amounts of moisture in the soil also favor the development of botrytis.
Long periods of drought cause plants to be less resistant to pests, especially to mites; plants perish, produce few flowers and small leaves; with the passing of time, and the persistence of drought conditions, the plant loses its leaves and completely dries up.