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The oak Bonsai is part of the Fagaceae family and there are different varieties. The characteristics of this Bonsai are its robustness, its size and its grandeur, it has a very sturdy and scaled trunk, the branches are powerful, tapered, gnarled and can take twisted forms, the evergreen leaves are a dark green color, very small, lobed and thin in the lower part, they can withstand even two years before falling and finally they create a very dense and irregular crown and the roots are very powerful. It is a plant that is resistant to both scorching heat and icy cold taking into account some tricks: in summer it is advisable to place it in a shaded environment or cover the pot to protect the roots from excessive heat, in autumn place it in a sunny area ideal for the production of new vegetation and to accumulate new energy that will serve him in the colder season, in winter being a robust plant it is possible to leave it outside keeping the roots covered by eventual frosts or temperature changes, to finish in spring it is advisable to keep it in full sun, as it is the season of full vegetation, where the first leaves sprout and the branches become stronger. In June it is possible to perform the defoliation technique preferably only on Bonsai in excellent health, because otherwise it may no longer be able to recreate the new vegetation. This technique allows the size of the leaves to be reduced, by eliminating 2/3 of each leaf with special scissors, the remaining part of the leaf can be cut after a few days, as the Bonsai will have produced new leaflets.
FERTILIZATION AND WATERING
The watering in the oak Bonsai must be adjusted according to the climatic conditions, the temperature, the quantity of soil and the size of the pot. It is advisable to water only when the Bonsai soil is completely dry at intervals of two times to give the plant time to absorb all the nutrients, avoiding the formation of stagnations that could damage it with the development of root rot. To keep the Bonsai moist, do not spray the crown because excessive humidity could cause the upper part of the Oidium leaves, instead place a saucer with damp gravel. The watering in the summer period is preferable to do it every day instead in the winter period one twice a month, so as in the period of vegetative rest the watering must be lower than the period of intense vegetation.
Fertilization in oak Bonsai must certainly be carried out every month during the vegetation period between March and June and between mid-August and October using liquid fertilizers, diluted in water even if those in grains are absorbed more slowly.
PRUNING, STITCHING, TIE RODS AND COPPER WIRES
The oak Bonsai being a very strong plant has no trauma at the time of pruning, producing new vegetation immediately. The operations must be performed with very sharp special tools including the scissors for the roots, the scissors for the leaves and shears of different sizes for the branches. The cuts of the branches must be clean without tearing so as not to damage the Bonsai and then be treated with mastic or healing paste. The best time to do the pruning technique is winter.
The stapling is performed to give a more balanced growth to the plant, pinching the new shoots with long scissors at the first internode. In this way the plant will have thinner branches, smaller leaves and a thicker crown. The best time to do it is during the growing season, at least three times at different times.
The technique with tie rods or copper wires is carried out during the vegetative season, on the younger branches and therefore more flexible to correct their position making the Bonsai more uniform. It is advisable to water the plant a few hours before to make the branches more sensitive to corrections.
Repotting is a technique used to replace the vase if necessary, the soil and the reduction of the root system, intervening with a scissor only on the roots that have become too thick and woody to leave space for the capillaries. The soil used in this technique must be 50% of universal soil, 25% of sand and 25% of peat. It is advisable to carry out repotting only on healthy Bonsai and to protect the roots on freshly repotted plants if the temperatures drop considerably with consequent frost.
The best time to carry out the repotting is from November, at the moment of the fall of the leaves, to March in the swelling of the buds, before the new vegetation starts.
Oak bonsai: PARASITES AND DISEASES
The oak Bonsai is easily attacked by animal parasites like the beetle, buprestidae, bark beetles, caterpillars, aphids and many others and by vegetable ones such as powdery mildew, bubble, cancer, coral disease, root rot, leaf spot etc ... carrying out every fortnightly anticryptogamic treatments and using the insecticide will protect the plant from such attacks.